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Boeddha en Mahāvīra: tijdgenoten

maart 2022

Naar aanleiding van het werk van een indiase auteur die in een van zijn boeken stelt dat Boeddha eeuwen eerder leefde dan Mahāvīra, de stichter van het jaïnisme, of degeen die het jaïnisme systematiseerde, of de laatste erkende verlichtte van het jaïnisme, die in boeddhistische kringen Nātaputta wordt genoemd, de zoon (putta) van Nāta, heb ik op de betreffende Youtube-pagina twee berichtjes achtergelaten teneinde die vergissing recht te zetten.
De berichtjes worden hier in het engels herhaald. Vertalen heeft geen zin omdat de nederlandstalige wereld nu eenmaal niet op verdergaande analyse zit te wachten; het moet wel leuk blijven.

In reaction to your book "Mahabharata to Medieval Era - Vol I" in which you state that "Buddha attained nirvana 675 years before the year of Mahavira nirvana."

As far as the name or epithet "Buddh[a]" goes:
Francis Buchanan's "Journal" (1811-1812) makes mention a "Buddha Sen" interpreted as a 'general over Bouddhs', see below.
Robert Montgomery Martin's "The History of Eastern India" (1823) equally mentions this same bas-relief.
In the "Transactions Of The Literary Society Of Bombay" (1823) there is mention of "the Puranas" in which is mention of three types of "Bouddhs": the Jains, the Jungum, and the Bouddh-math (= Buddhists).
The Rgveda mentions a rsi by name of Gótama Rāhugana Ángiras.
So far for the Vedic scriptures, the Puranas, and possibly the Upanishads.

As far as the Buddhist scriptures go: On his last journey towards Kapilavastu Gotama (i.e. Sakyamuni) Buddha paid respect to the shrine of a (in Pāli:) Gotama (in Skr. and Hindi: Gautam[a]). This passage occurs in the Mahaparibbana Sutta of the Buddhist Pāli-canon; it has no further specification of name or function but we may surmise a connection with the afore-mentioned Gótama Rāhugana Ángiras who lived well before Sakyamuni Buddha.

With regard to the name Mahavīra:
In the Pāli canon of the Buddhists Mahavīra is mentioned with "Nātaputta" [the son (P: putta; Skr.: Putra) of Nāta]. He is a contemporary of Sakyamuni (Gótama/Gáutama) Buddha but much older; Mahavīra dies when Buddha is still alive.

"... Dr. Buhler's and Dr. Jacobi's ... discovery that Mahavīra was the same as Nigantha Nātaputta, who died at Pāvā [in Uttar Pradesh] during Buddha's lifetime." (The Sacred Books of the East, 1881)

The Upāli Sutta (Majjhima Nikāya 56, PTS i 372-373): "... staying near Nālandā in Pāvārika's mango grove. Now at that time Nātaputta the Jain was residing in Nālandā with a large company of Jain. ... Dighatapassin the Jain ... approached the Lord (= Buddha) ..."

(The Pāli) Pasādika Sutta (Dīgha Nikāya xi71 I.): "Once the Lord was staying among the Sākyans ... in the mango-grove belonging to the Vedhañña family. At that time the Nigantha Nātaputta had just died ... And at his death the Niganthas were split into two parties ..."

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