Prof. R. Choudhary in zijn "The History of Bihar" (1958, p.15) merkt op dat de staat waarin Boeddha geboren werd, en het volk dat vervolgens die naam kreeg, of omgekeerd, niet van "Aryan origine" was, dat noch de "Hindu Vedas, noch Manu (de Manu smrti) gewag maken van Màgadha (het huidige Bihar) als een natie of een volk". Hij zegt: "Màgadha belonged to the Munda, (a) non-Aryan group." (Màgadha behoorde tot de Munda, een niet-arische bevolkingsgroep.)
Voor Boeddha was, in zijn dagen, een nieuwe tijd ingegaan. Het volk hoefde geen eerbiedige vrees meer te beleven jegens gepersonificeerde elementen als water en vuur. De overstromingen en mega-bosbranden waren achter de rug. Ze bevonden zich ook niet meer temidden van een volk op de vlucht voor water en vuur, een volk dat fysieke en metale zekerheid probeerde te vinden of te houden met behulp van vedische voorschriften zoals het niet samen eten met andere bevolkingsgroepen, en het niet "buiten je stand" huwen.
September 4th, 2017
Dr. Daya Hewa-pathiraneContrary to what Ananth Karthikeyan has stated in his article published in the Lankaweb on September 03, 2017, titled The Imperial Cholas' "Conquest of Sri Lanka" mentioned, Sri Lanka was never captured and controlled completely by Dravidians at any time in its history. The following is an outline of Dravidian invasions and their outcome according to Sri Lankan sources of information and evidence from Sri Lanka.
Recorded history states that Sri Lanka was invaded as much as seventeen times by South Indian Dravidian speaking invaders since 230 BCE. Coming with armies of Tamils from South India they ruthlessly wiped out entire Sinhala villages along their way to Anurádhapura and Polònnaruwa the royal capitals of the past. These highly prosperous Sinhala Buddhist capitals were ransacked and plundered and the people subject to untold atrocities. They killed Sinhala Kings or forced them to the retreat to the south. These Tamil invaders sat on the Sinhala throne and ruled over the Sinhala people for about 170 years at different times.
The Tamil threat to the Sinhala Buddhist kingdoms had become very real in the fifth and sixth centuries CE. Three Hindu empires in southern India — the Pándya, Pállava, and Chola, were becoming more assertive. Tamil ethnic and religious consciousness matured during this period. In the meantime, in India, Buddhism was becoming vulnerable to pressure and absorption by Hinduism and its influence was receding. It was during this time that Chola, Pállava and Pándya Tamils were instrumental in repeated invasions and threats to our Buddhist Sinhala rulers.
Sri Lanka experienced terror in its worst forms never known in our land before, during the invasions and rule of the Dravidian Kálinga Magha and later in recent years under the Tamil terrorist Prabakáran. The crime-prone rule of Kálinga Mágha prevailed for 21 years from the year 1201. The Tamil Pándyan and Tamil Nayàkka intrusion into Sinhala royal families led to our traditional royalty going into disarray after the 13th century, and the eventual decline of the stability and magnanimity of the Sinhala Buddhist nation.
Some Dravidians came to Sri Lanka as mercenaries. Propensity to violence and criminal activities is not a recent development among Tamils. The history of Tamil involvement in our country is marked by excessive violence. This characterizes the history of Tamil invasions and involvements in our country from early times. This makes one think whether violence has become a part of the mental and psychological structure of the average Tamil.
Whether the outrageous and violent attitudes of Dravidians, especially the Tamils in general, towards Sri Lanka have changed in recent times is questionable when one learns of the outrageous public pronouncements of Tamil leaders of Tamil Nadu — the Homeland of Tamils. It was as recent as May 2009 that Jayalálitha called for Indian troops to invade Sri Lanka to help create a Tamil state. This dim-witted woman who died a few days ago, was the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu the homeland of the Tamils.
FIRST DRAVIDIAN TAMIL INVADERS — SENA AND GUTTIKA (22 Years)The first invasion around 230 BCE, was by two brothers who ruled on the Sinhala throne over the Sinhala people for 22 years till they were killed by a Sinhala prince from the south. The first reported account of South Indian Tamil rule in Sri Lanka was during the period 237-215 BCE by the horse dealers SENA and GUTTIKA who killed the Sinhala king Surastissa and usurped the Sinhala throne and occupied the throne at Anurádhapura for twenty-two years. In 215 BCE, Sinhala king ASELA, the brother of Suras-tissa and brother of King Deva-nàmpiya-tissa regained the kingdom from Tamil invaders and ruled from 215 to 205 BCE.
DRAVIDIAN TAMIL ELARA (44 Years)Ten years later, a Chola Tamil South Indian invader named Elara, came and slew the legitimate Sinhala king Asela, and ruled Rajarata from Anurádhapura. He held the Sinhala throne for 44 years (205-161 BCE). This Tamil invader was slained by Prince Dutugémunu and the entire country was unified under his rule.
WAR WAGED BY SEVEN DRAVIDIAN TAMILSValagambāhu became the king of Anurádhapura Kingdom in 103 BCE. Five months after becoming king, he was overthrown by a Tamil invasion from South India. Seven Tamils waged war against king Valagambāhu : Pula-hatta (or Pula-hatha), Báhiya, Panáya Mara, Piláya Mara, Dathiya. In 88 BCE these Tamils were deposed by Valagambāhu ending Tamil rule. Valagambāhu I (89-77) BCE restored the Dutugémunu dynasty.
SIX PANDYAN TAMIL INVADERS (428 - 452 CE)There was a twenty-four year period from 428 to 452 CE, when six Pandyan Tamil invaders ruled the country - Pandu (428-433), Parinda (433), Khuda Parinda (433-449), Tiritara (449), Dáthiya (449-452). King Dhátu-sena defeated the last two of these Tamil usurpers and ruled our nation from 452 to 470 CE.
PANDYAN AND CHOLA INVASIONS IN THE 9TH CENTURY CEBy the middle of the ninth century, the Pándyans had risen to a position of ascendancy in southern India, invaded northern Sri Lanka, and ransacked Anurádhapura. During the period 846 to 866 CE, Pandyan Tamils invaded and plundered Anurádhapura.
TAMIL VIOLENCE LED TO ABANDONMENT OF ANURĀDHAPURA -THE ROYAL CAPITAL OF 1400 YEARSIn 993, the Chola Emperor Rajaraja-I invaded Sri Lanka, forcing the then Sri Lankan ruler Mahinda V to flee to the southern part of the country. Rajèndra-I son of Rajaraja-I, launched a large invasion and Mahinda-V was captured and taken prisoner to India where he died in 1037. Mahinda-V (917-1007), was the last Sinhala king to rule from Anurádhapura. These Cholas ransacked the city of Anurádhapura and moved the capital to Polònnaruwa and subsequent Sri Lankan rulers who came into power after the Chola reign continued to use Polònnaruwa as the capital, thus ending the Anurádhapura regime.
TAMIL PLUNDER OF ANURĀDHAPURARajadhiraja Chola-II (1166-1178 C.E.) who was a Chola king in India had serious disputes with the Pándyans and the Sinhala rulers on the opposite side, bringing untold misery to both sides. This civil war that resulted between the Cholas and Pándyan Tamils brought power to Pándyans resulting in invasions and plunder of Anurádhapura.
ROYAL CAPITAL RELOCATED IN POLONNARUWA OWING TO TAMIL INVASIONS AND VIOLENCE
VIJAYA-BĀHU-I (1045-1095 CE) ousted the Chola Tamils from Anurádhapura and regained the Rajarata Sinhala kingdom. He chose Polonnaruwa as his capital. It is also significant that Hindu Dévales were respected and Tamil soldiers were maintained in the service of the king. King Vi-jáya-bĀhu had Leela-vati (liila-vaati) as his chief queen, but also married a princess from Kálinga Royal Family as his second wife. From her he had a son named Vikrama Bāhu and a daughter named Ratna-vali. His sister, Mitta, was given in marriage to a Pándyan Prince who had three sons, the eldest of whom named Mana-bhárana, became the husband of Ratnavali. Their son was Parakráma Bāhu-I.