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Dravidian invasions

Prof. R. Choudhary in zijn "The History of Bihar" (1958, p.15) merkt op dat de staat waarin Boeddha geboren werd, en het volk dat vervolgens die naam kreeg, of omgekeerd, niet van "Aryan origine" was, dat noch de "Hindu Vedas, noch Manu (de Manu smrti) gewag maken van Màgadha (het huidige Bihar) als een natie of een volk". Hij zegt: "Màgadha belonged to the Munda, (a) non-Aryan group." (Màgadha behoorde tot de Munda, een niet-arische bevolkingsgroep.)
Voor Boeddha was, in zijn dagen, een nieuwe tijd ingegaan. Het volk hoefde geen eerbiedige vrees meer te beleven jegens gepersonificeerde elementen als water en vuur. De overstromingen en mega-bosbranden waren achter de rug. Ze bevonden zich ook niet meer temidden van een volk op de vlucht voor water en vuur, een volk dat fysieke en metale zekerheid probeerde te vinden of te houden met behulp van vedische voorschriften zoals het niet samen eten met andere bevolkingsgroepen, en het niet "buiten je stand" huwen.


"Aryans vs. Dravidians" is a Myth"

Dr. Subramanian Swamy with Abhaey Singh The Festival of Bharat, publ. July 31, 2018
Dr. Swamy:
"The other pollution in our history is these words "Dravidian" and "Aryan". The word Dravidian was first known to be used by (the 8th cent.) Adi Shánkara. When he started what is so typically Indian: no conquest by war but by shastra, which means debate. So Buddhists had taken over (the north) and Adi Shánkara made it a mission to revive and bring back Hinduïsm."

(In fact Adi Shánkara created "Hinduïsm" by amalgamating many but not all dharmic schools in one and starting what is now known as advaita vedanta.)

"So he (Adi Shánkara) challenged scholars of Buddhism to debate. ... The Buddhist scholar was Múndara Mishra. ... plus another scholar from the Úttara Mimámsa school." (An other atheïst school.)

One of the debater's wife, the Buddhists or the Mimamsists presided over the debate.
"She asked Adi Shánkara: "who are you?" And he said: "I'm drávida shishu." (shishu means child). "But what is this word "drávida"?" He said, 'it's a sandhi (linking) of two words: Tr[a] and vid. Tr means 3; vid means coast.' "So where the three coasts meet there is Drávida. So it's a regional term. South India is Drávida.
Unfortunately the British pounced on that and made it a racial thing. ..."

"The word "Aryan" doesn't exist in Sanskrit literature. "Arya" means "a civilised person", an accomplished person, a gentleman or a lady, that sort of thing. It (the word) was never part of the community.

(The word "aryan" does exist in Sanskrit literature, though not in the racial sense of the word, not as the name of an ethnicity. "In later times", says the Monier-Williams dictionary, "arya" came into use for "the first three castes" as opposed to the 'caste' of Shúdra, peasants, blue collar workers.)

"So the British created a history where they said that the whole of India was full of Indians; then the Aryans came from Europe through Khyber Pass and beat the hell out of the Dravidians and asserted themselves. And then they provoked the South Indians to rebel against the north under the term that "this country is really yours". And Karnátaka didn't accept it, and Kérala didn't accept it, and Andhra (Pradesh) didn't accept it, but Tamil Nadu became a victim of that. And so the Dravidian movement was started. .... .
"In fact (before the British took over) they (the Tamils) used to celebrate "Raman liila" as opposed to "Ram[a] liila" (liila, also leela), because Ram[a] was "Aryan", a northerner (and Raman was perceived as being a southerner). Now they've stopped (the conflagration of Raman and Ram) and I made a contribution (to that)."

(Although even as recent as 2019 the wikipedia editor states that the demi-god Raman is in fact the Hindu demi-god Rama, who in popular parlance is referred to as Ram. Therefore Dr. Swamy has his work cut out; wikipedia uploaders tend to be extremely stubborn.)

Thereafter Mr. Swamy relates the rather contempoary story, i.e. dating from the colonial era, that says that Raman was killed by Rama and that therefore Ram[a] ruled supreme over the south. "But the truth is that Raman was also a northerner. ... He went to Mano-sárovar (lake) and Lord Shiva gave him this boon (of ruling over a swath of land)."

"This (perceived) division is now being exploded by DNA studies."

Mr Swamy goes on saying that recent DNA studies revealed that there is no racial difference between south and north. All Indians of Indian stock have the same DNA. The Dravidians are not a different race; they are merely the folks that live in the south, "between the three coasts" as Adi Shánkara explained it.

September 4th, 2017
Dr. Daya Hewa-pathirane
Contrary to what Ananth Karthikeyan has stated in his article published in the Lankaweb on September 03, 2017, titled The Imperial Cholas' "Conquest of Sri Lanka" mentioned, Sri Lanka was never captured and controlled completely by Dravidians at any time in its history. The following is an outline of Dravidian invasions and their outcome according to Sri Lankan sources of information and evidence from Sri Lanka.

Recorded history states that Sri Lanka was invaded as much as seventeen times by South Indian Dravidian speaking invaders since 230 BCE. Coming with armies of Tamils from South India they ruthlessly wiped out entire Sinhala villages along their way to Anurádhapura and Polònnaruwa the royal capitals of the past. These highly prosperous Sinhala Buddhist capitals were ransacked and plundered and the people subject to untold atrocities. They killed Sinhala Kings or forced them to the retreat to the south. These Tamil invaders sat on the Sinhala throne and ruled over the Sinhala people for about 170 years at different times.

The Tamil threat to the Sinhala Buddhist kingdoms had become very real in the fifth and sixth centuries CE. Three Hindu empires in southern India — the Pándya, Pállava, and Chola, were becoming more assertive. Tamil ethnic and religious consciousness matured during this period. In the meantime, in India, Buddhism was becoming vulnerable to pressure and absorption by Hinduism and its influence was receding. It was during this time that Chola, Pállava and Pándya Tamils were instrumental in repeated invasions and threats to our Buddhist Sinhala rulers.

Sri Lanka experienced terror in its worst forms never known in our land before, during the invasions and rule of the Dravidian Kálinga Magha and later in recent years under the Tamil terrorist Prabakáran. The crime-prone rule of Kálinga Mágha prevailed for 21 years from the year 1201. The Tamil Pándyan and Tamil Nayàkka intrusion into Sinhala royal families led to our traditional royalty going into disarray after the 13th century, and the eventual decline of the stability and magnanimity of the Sinhala Buddhist nation.

Some Dravidians came to Sri Lanka as mercenaries. Propensity to violence and criminal activities is not a recent development among Tamils. The history of Tamil involvement in our country is marked by excessive violence. This characterizes the history of Tamil invasions and involvements in our country from early times. This makes one think whether violence has become a part of the mental and psychological structure of the average Tamil.

Whether the outrageous and violent attitudes of Dravidians, especially the Tamils in general, towards Sri Lanka have changed in recent times is questionable when one learns of the outrageous public pronouncements of Tamil leaders of Tamil Nadu — the Homeland of Tamils. It was as recent as May 2009 that Jayalálitha called for Indian troops to invade Sri Lanka to help create a Tamil state. This dim-witted woman who died a few days ago, was the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu the homeland of the Tamils.

The first invasion around 230 BCE, was by two brothers who ruled on the Sinhala throne over the Sinhala people for 22 years till they were killed by a Sinhala prince from the south. The first reported account of South Indian Tamil rule in Sri Lanka was during the period 237-215 BCE by the horse dealers SENA and GUTTIKA who killed the Sinhala king Surastissa and usurped the Sinhala throne and occupied the throne at Anurádhapura for twenty-two years. In 215 BCE, Sinhala king ASELA, the brother of Suras-tissa and brother of King Deva-nàmpiya-tissa regained the kingdom from Tamil invaders and ruled from 215 to 205 BCE.

Ten years later, a Chola Tamil South Indian invader named Elara, came and slew the legitimate Sinhala king Asela, and ruled Rajarata from Anurádhapura. He held the Sinhala throne for 44 years (205-161 BCE). This Tamil invader was slained by Prince Dutugémunu and the entire country was unified under his rule.

Valagambāhu became the king of Anurádhapura Kingdom in 103 BCE. Five months after becoming king, he was overthrown by a Tamil invasion from South India. Seven Tamils waged war against king Valagambāhu : Pula-hatta (or Pula-hatha), Báhiya, Panáya Mara, Piláya Mara, Dathiya. In 88 BCE these Tamils were deposed by Valagambāhu ending Tamil rule. Valagambāhu I (89-77) BCE restored the Dutugémunu dynasty.

There was a twenty-four year period from 428 to 452 CE, when six Pandyan Tamil invaders ruled the country - Pandu (428-433), Parinda (433), Khuda Parinda (433-449), Tiritara (449), Dáthiya (449-452). King Dhátu-sena defeated the last two of these Tamil usurpers and ruled our nation from 452 to 470 CE.

By the middle of the ninth century, the Pándyans had risen to a position of ascendancy in southern India, invaded northern Sri Lanka, and ransacked Anurádhapura. During the period 846 to 866 CE, Pandyan Tamils invaded and plundered Anurádhapura.

In 993, the Chola Emperor Rajaraja-I invaded Sri Lanka, forcing the then Sri Lankan ruler Mahinda V to flee to the southern part of the country. Rajèndra-I son of Rajaraja-I, launched a large invasion and Mahinda-V was captured and taken prisoner to India where he died in 1037. Mahinda-V (917-1007), was the last Sinhala king to rule from Anurádhapura. These Cholas ransacked the city of Anurádhapura and moved the capital to Polònnaruwa and subsequent Sri Lankan rulers who came into power after the Chola reign continued to use Polònnaruwa as the capital, thus ending the Anurádhapura regime.

Rajadhiraja Chola-II (1166-1178 C.E.) who was a Chola king in India had serious disputes with the Pándyans and the Sinhala rulers on the opposite side, bringing untold misery to both sides. This civil war that resulted between the Cholas and Pándyan Tamils brought power to Pándyans resulting in invasions and plunder of Anurádhapura.

VIJAYA-BĀHU-I (1045-1095 CE) ousted the Chola Tamils from Anurádhapura and regained the Rajarata Sinhala kingdom. He chose Polonnaruwa as his capital. It is also significant that Hindu Dévales were respected and Tamil soldiers were maintained in the service of the king. King Vi-jáya-bĀhu had Leela-vati (liila-vaati) as his chief queen, but also married a princess from Kálinga Royal Family as his second wife. From her he had a son named Vikrama Bāhu and a daughter named Ratna-vali. His sister, Mitta, was given in marriage to a Pándyan Prince who had three sons, the eldest of whom named Mana-bhárana, became the husband of Ratnavali. Their son was Parakráma Bāhu-I.

PARAKRAMA BAHU- I (1140-1173 CE), Grandson of Vi-jáya Bāhu-I, a Prince of Royal Blood, of Pándyan descent, as the son of Manabhárana and Vi-jáya Bāhu's sister Mitta. Parakráma Bāhu-I became King in 1140 and reigned for thirty three years leaving behind no heir to the throne. This led to the nomination of VIJAYABĀHU-II as king (1173-1174 CE) He was Parakráama Bāhu's sister's son.

NISSÀNKA MALLA (Kirti Sri Nisàsnka), 1174-1183 CE, was a Kálinga Prince and his reign was followed by a period of utmost political instability resulting in downfall of the Rajarata kingdom and the former glory of Polònnaruva.

During the reign of Queen Liila-vati (1197-1198 CE), the Widow of King Parakrama Bahu, a South Indian Pándyan Tamil invader deposed her and became the king and ruled for three years.

In 1201 Sri Lanka was invaded by MAGHA a Dravidian Kálinga prince who took the king captive, tortured him and robbed him of all riches. He ruled for 21 years until 1222 CE. The ferocity, cruelty and barbarism of Tamils were unprecedented. These Tamils ransacked the kingdom, killed man and beast, broke images, destroyed temples, vihāras, tortured the rich of their wealth and gave land to Cholas. The Tooth and Bowl relics (Buddha's relic and almsbowl) were hidden. Kálinga Magha tyrannized the inhabitants of Rajarata and extended his invasion to the south of the country where he was counter-attacked by the Sinhala and this Tamil terrorist escaped death and ran back to India with some of his soldiers. He was compelled to retreat by the forces of Vi-jáya Bāhu-III of Maya Rata (1222-1226 CE) and was killed by the Sinhala on his way back to India.

VI-JAYA BĀHU -III (1222-1226 CE) who expelled Magha the Tamil invaders from Maya Rata, moved the seat of government to Damba-déniya. He had two sons named Parakrámabāhu and Bhuvaneka Bāhu.

PANDITHA PARAKRÁMA BĀHU-II (1226-1257 CE), the eldest son of Vi-jáya Bāhu-III became the king after his father Vi-jáya Bāhu-III. The new king was known as Panditha Parakrámabāhu-II, on account of his great learning. Chandra Bhanu the Tamil, who claimed to be a ruler of Jaffna, went to war with Panditha Parakrámabāhu and was defeated mercilessly. Although Parakrámabāhu was crowned at Polònnaruwa he ruled at Damba-déniya. He reigned as king over the whole of Lanka for thirty five years and upon his death was succeeded by his son, Vi-jáya Bāhu who ruled for two years and political instability followed with several kings who ruled for short periods of time.

BHUVANEKA BĀHU-I ascended the throne in 1259 and ruled until 1270. During the early part of his reign our country was repeatedly but unsuccessfully invaded by Indian Tamil forces. He initially ruled from Dambadeniya and later shifted his capital to Yapa-huva. The life of Yapa-huva as the capital of Lanka lasted only till the death of King Bhuvanéka Bāhu-I, when it was subjugated and despoiled by another Tamil invasion.

PARAKRAMA BĀHU-III, the nephew of Buvaneka Bāhu-I, became king in 1270 and ruled for five years in Polonnaruwa. During his reign the island was invaded by a Pándyan army led by one Chakra-vàrti. The invaders succeeded in capturing the forces of Yapa-huva and carrying off the (above-mentioned) sacred Tooth-Relics to India. The Sinhala king succeeded in bringing it back to Lanka and placed the relics in Polonnaruwa.

BUVANEKA BĀHU-II (1275-1277CE), Son of Buvaneka Bāhu-I, cousin of Parakráma Bāhu-III who had a Pándyan connection ruled from Kuru-negála.

PARAKRAMA BAHU-IV (1277-1301 CE), son of Buvaneka Bāhu-II proclaimed himself king against the Pándyan Emperor Kula-sékera. Kulasékera came himself to avenge the killing of his nephew Parakráma Bāhu-III by Buwanekabāhu-II. He invaded Yapa Patuna Kingdom and captured it.

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